Technology – Business Linux Operating Systems

Unix and Linux are different operating systems with have some common commands. Source code for Linux is freely available to the public and Unix is not available. Linux operating system is free/open-source and Some versions of Unix are proprietary and others are free/open source. Linux Operating system can be used for desktop systems and for servers. But the Unix is mainly used in servers, mainframes, and high-end computers.

AIX is an operating system based on Unix versions from IBM. It is mainly designed for IBM’s workstations and for the server hardware platforms. And HP-UX is the operating system from HP ( Hewlett Packard ) based on Unix versions.  HP-UX and AIX are stable operating systems compared with Linux. HP-UX and AIX are platform-dependent and are limited to their own hardware. But in the case of Linux, it is platform-independent and can be used with any hardware. Since HP-UX and AIX are platform-dependent, they are optimized for the hardware and the performance is better than Linux operating systems.  AIX is outperforming Linux from 5 to 10 percent.

Unix

AT&T Unix, started in the 1970s at the Bell Labs and newer versions of Unix have developed and some of them are listed below. In 1980, AT&T licensed Unix to third-party vendors and leading to the development of different variants. Some of them are;

  • Berkeley Unix, FreeBSD and its variants
  • Solaris from Sun Microsystem
  • HP-UX from Hewlett-Packard
  • AIX from IBM
  • MacOs from Apple
  • Microsoft’s Xenix

Unix installations are costlier since it requires some special hardware. MacOS needs apple computers, AIX needs IBM hardware and HP-UX needs HP hardware, etc.

Linux

Linux is a free and open-source operating system based on Unix. Linux kernel was first developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991. Linux was originally developed for personal computers but nowadays it is using personal computers as well as in server systems. Since it is very flexible, it can be installed in any hardware system. Linux operating system is available for mobile phones, tablets, video game consoles, mainframes, and supercomputers. Some of the best distros for small businesses are;

  • Centos
  • ClearOS
  • OpenSUSE
  • IPFire
  • Ubuntu
  • Manjaro
  • Slackware

Linux Vs Unix

LinuxUnix
The Source Code of Linux is freely available to its Users.The Source Code of Unix is not available for the general public.
Linux primarily uses Graphical User Interface with an optional Command Line Interface.Unix primarily uses Command Line Interface.
Linux OS is portable and can be executed in different Hard Drives.Unix is not portable.
Linux is very flexible and can be installed on most of the Home Based Pcs.Unix has a rigid requirement of the Hardware. Hence, cannot be installed on every other machine.
Linux is mainly used in Home Based PC, Mobile Phones, Desktops, etc.Unix is mainly used in Server Systems, Mainframes and High-End Computers.
Different Versions of Linux are: Ubuntu, Debian, OpenSuse, Redhat, Solaris, etc.Different Versions of Unix are: AIS, HP-UX, BSD, Iris, etc.
Linux Installation is economical and doesn’t require much specific and high-end hardware.Unix Installation is comparatively costlier as it requires more specific hardware circuitry.
The Filesystems supported by Linux are as follows: xfs, ramfs, nfs, vfat, cramfsm ext3, ext4, ext2, ext1, ufs, autofs, devpts, ntfsThe Filesystems supported by Unix are as follows: zfs, js, hfx, gps, xfs, vxfs.
Linux is developed by an active Linux Community worldwide.Unix is developed by AT&T Developers.

Hardware architecture

Most commercial versions of UNIX distributions are coded for specific hardware. Like HP-UX for PA-RISC (Hewlett-Packard) and Itanium machines (Intel) and AIX is for Power processors ( IBM ). Since these distributions are limited, the developers can optimize their code for these architectures to get maximum utilization of resources.  Since it uses proprietary hardware, Unix distributions are not cost-effective.

  • HP-UX needs HP or Intel hardware
  • AIX needs IBM Hardware

Linux operating system is not dependent on the hardware, so it can be installed in any of the server systems which have a processor. Since the developers cannot assume the hardware architecture and they need to prepare the code for some general hardware specifications and that’s why Linux operating system has less performance than the commercial Unix variants.

  • Linux is open to all hardware

Licensing

GNU General Public License (GPL), is a form of copyleft and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU Project. Free software projects, although developed through collaboration, are often produced independently of each other. AIX and HP-UX are using proprietary licenses.

HP-UX

DeveloperHewlett-Packard Enterprise
Written inC
OS familyUnix (System V)
Initial release1982; 36 years ago
Kernel typeMonolithic with dynamically loadable modules
LicenseProprietary

IBM AIX

DeveloperIBM
Written inC
OS familyUnix
Initial release1986; 32 years ago
Kernel typeMonolithic with dynamically loadable modules
LicenseProprietary

Linux

DeveloperCommunity, Linus Torvalds
Written inPrimarily C and assembly
OS familyUnix-like
Initial releaseSeptember 17, 1991; 26 years ago
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux kernel)
LicenseGPLv2[7] and other free and open-source licenses (the name “Linux” is a trademark[b])

Softwares and Tools

Softwares and tools in Linux are general to all hardware. But in the case of Unix, separate tools and software which leveraged to get the maximum performance. So the performance of the systems is higher than the Linux operating system by comparing the hardware configuration. Unix has good performance than Linux systems. While considering the cost estimation, Linux will get more votes.

System Management Interface Tool ( SMIT ) with AIX is the tool used for package management, System Administration Manager (SAM) on HP-UX. Linux operating system uses rpm or dpkg etc. based on the variants.

Software Installation and Patch Management

 

R H Linux

HP-UX

AIX

Installrpm -i fileswinstall –s depot softwareinstallp –a [-c] FileSet
Updaterpm -U/F fileswinstall –s depot softwareinstallp –a FileSet
Listrpm -qswlist –l productlslpp –L all
Removerpm -eswremove softwareinstallp –u FileSet
Patchesrpm -uswinstallinstallp
List Patchesrpm -q -aswlist –l productlslpp –L all
Patch checkup2date/yumsecurity_patch_checkcompare_report

File system

While talking about the file systems, Linux scores more than the other Unix versions. Unix supports two or three file systems locally. But Linux supports almost all the file systems available on any operating system.

SystemFilesystem
AIXjfs, gpfs
HP-UXhfs, vxfs

Kernel

The kernel is the core of the operating system and the source code of the kernel is not freely available for the commercial versions of Unix. For the Linux operating system, the users can check and verify the code and even modify it if required.

Support

The commercial versions of Unix come with a license cost. Since these operating systems are purchased, the vendor will provide technical support to the end-users for the smooth running of the operating systems.

In the case of the Linux operating system, we need to use the open-source forums and community for getting support from the users and developers around the world or hire some freelancers for fixing the issues.