Gardening – Growing Food in Small Urban Spaces

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Small urban spaces are perfect for growing high-value crops like herbs, salad leaves and soft fruit. Homegrown produce can be a great way to supplement a diet and cut down on food waste. Growing food in urban spaces can also help reduce the amount of food that needs to be stored or transported in temperature-controlled storage facilities. Whether you grow vegetables, herbs, or other plants in your home or city garden will depend on what you plan to grow.

Growing food vertically

Growing food vertically in a small urban space can help solve many of the problems associated with limited space and light. Tall plants can be trained upward or downward to grow large and productive despite having a tiny horizontal footprint. Light can also be found higher up in the vertical space than at ground level. Shorter plants can be placed in front of taller plants to catch the sunlight before it reaches the lower layers. This is particularly advantageous in areas with limited outdoor space.

The benefits of vertical farming are plentiful. One of the main benefits is accessibility and the reduction of reliance on distant food sources. In addition to offering year-round produce, vertical farming allows for year-round access to food grown in extreme climates. It also allows farmers to control conditions and offer more than traditional methods. This is especially useful for urban farms with limited space. Growing food vertically in small urban spaces is a practical, cost-effective, and attractive option for urban dwellers who wish to grow organic food.

A vertical farm can be built in any space, even an underused urban space. It can be built in a used warehouse, old shipping containers, or even a pork-packing plant. In this way, underutilized space can be transformed into local farms. By building vertical farms, communities become more involved in food production and consumption. In fact, a recent Brookings article on urban land revitalization emphasizes the importance of vertical farms. Plenty is planning its next vertical farm in Compton, California.

The USDA and Department of Energy recently held a stakeholder workshop on vertical farming and sustainable urban ecosystems. During the workshop, experts in the field shared thought-provoking presentations. Small-group discussions focused on engineering, plant breeding, and pest management brought together attendees from the public and private sectors to identify needs and challenges associated with vertical farming. The report generated from the workshop will help guide Departmental research priorities. Growing food vertically in small urban spaces can make a huge difference in the food supply chain in the U.S.

Vertical farming can also be beneficial to the leafy greens industry, as it allows farmers to grow more leafy greens throughout the year, regardless of weather conditions. It can also reduce the food loss in transportation. Vertical farming will improve crop diversity and focus on higher-nutrient and nutrient-rich products. It will also support local food systems and help meet the growing demands of global population. While vertical farming isn’t feasible in every city, the benefits of urban production are worth considering.

Urban agriculture has the potential to solve some of the world’s greatest food shortage problems. By moving production closer to the point of consumption, vertical farming can significantly reduce the number of food miles, thereby ensuring more people have access to fresh vegetables. Most Americans eat leafy greens, which can be grown vertically, but most of this production occurs as outdoor crops in places such as Arizona and California. Leafy greens are water-dense and must travel many miles to be consumed.

Investing in vertical farming is one way to mitigate disparities and create new employment opportunities. Incorporating community members in vertical farming initiatives is an important component of energy justice and development. A successful vertical farm will create jobs in the community, including the workers and residents who work on it. The benefits of growing food vertically are endless. The benefits are numerous and they can be a lifesaver in urban settings.

Growing food in areas with less sun

Regardless of the location of your garden, most vegetables and fruits do better when they receive a full day’s worth of sun. In a definition of “full sun,” an area gets at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. In a garden, however, partial sun and dappled sunlight are both perfectly acceptable for growing many types of plants. Vegetables that grow for the leaves and stems are often fine in areas where they do not receive as much direct sun. If you live in a shady area, consider growing root vegetables instead.

If your front or back yard gets no sun, you can still grow most vegetables and herbs. Alternatively, you can grow flowers in containers and use vertical supports. While growing vegetables and herbs in areas with less sunlight, it’s important to remember that they require three hours of direct sunlight each day. Avoid planting plants too close together as they will be shaded by each other. Consider using grow bags or containers if you can’t afford to move your plants regularly. Moreover, be aware of the micro-climates of your garden and plant accordingly. Also, remember that there’s a limit to how much you can water your plants.

Some vegetables, such as cucumbers and squash, do well in partially shaded areas. In general, these crops require at least eight hours of sunlight per day. Partially shaded areas can be a challenge, but there are methods to grow vegetables in areas with partial shade. For example, cucumbers and pole beans do well in areas where the sun isn’t as strong. They grow well in partially shaded areas, too, because their growth depends on the amount of sunlight they receive.

Some vegetables and fruits do very well in shaded areas, but their crops are small and won’t be as large as those grown in full sun. Some professionals plant cauliflower in the afternoon to protect light-sensitive curds. The rest of the vegetables and herbs do well in less sun. Leafy vegetables like spinach, lettuce, and spinach will grow just fine. It’s also possible to grow potatoes and peppers if you have the space.

How-To Grow Food in a Small Urban Space

Gardening – Essential Tips For Starting a Balcony Vegetable Garden

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There are a few essential tips to starting a balcony vegetable garden. First of all, you should decide if you want to grow vegetables in the full sun or in the shade. You can also grow vegetables in containers. Another essential tip is to avoid wind and windy locations. If you can’t avoid wind, you can use pots. You can use pots to grow vegetables in the full sun, but avoid growing them in the shade.

Growing vegetables in full sun

If you are aiming to grow your own vegetables in a balcony garden, you will need to consider the amount of sunlight it receives. Generally, the more sunlight your balcony gets, the better the plants will grow. However, some vegetables need more direct sunlight to grow well. You should choose a position that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight a day. Some vegetables can grow in filtered light, so it’s crucial to consider how much light you can give them.

While most vegetables require at least eight hours of sunlight, you should also be aware that some can do just fine with less sunlight, such as leafy greens and root vegetables. A good place to plant these vegetables is near a large window or on a balcony with at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight. While some crops require more direct sunlight, others do well in dappled light. It’s important to determine which type of plants you want to grow, and adjust your choices accordingly.

In addition to the sunlight, you should consider the climate. The climate on your balcony may be different from that on the ground, which means that you will need to choose plants that can withstand a different climate. Some plants are more suitable for balconies than others, so make sure to check with your local government to determine the best plants for your balcony. You should also know about the rules of gardening in your area.

Growing vegetables in shade

Planting a vegetable garden on a balcony requires careful planning, time, and space. But it’s not impossible. With a little bit of potting soil, patience, and interest, you can successfully grow a tasty and nutritious crop. Listed below are some tips on how to grow vegetables in shade on a balcony. -Plant in deeper soil than the rest of the plants. -Water thoroughly to prevent transplant shock.

– Choose a location that gets at least some sun. South and west facing balconies receive nearly all daytime sunlight. East-facing balconies receive morning sunlight, which is sufficient for most greens, herbs, and root vegetables. North-facing balconies are typically shady, but they still allow you to grow some vegetables, like lettuce, parsley, cilantro, peas, and fenugreek.

-Plant vegetables in containers that have adequate drainage. You can also plant your garden in a 3-5-gallon pot. This container size will accommodate many vegetables, including eggplants, cherry tomatoes, and peas. Larger containers are better for tall tomato varieties, such as roma, a type of cherry tomato. Small containers are also good for growing individual herbs. These containers are convenient for growing a variety of fruits and vegetables.

-Plant vegetables in a spot with at least eight hours of direct sunlight. If your balcony gets less than eight hours of sunlight, you may want to choose crops that don’t require as much light. The best spot to plant your vegetable garden will receive at least four to six hours of direct sunlight. Aside from a balcony with indirect sunlight, your plant should also get filtered sunlight. Moreover, vegetables grown in filtered light are more resistant to pest infestation, and they are resistant to fungal diseases.

Growing vegetables in pots

Vegetables are a great option for a balcony garden, but they must be carefully cared for. Before starting a plant, it is important to learn about proper soil, light and placement. If you can find a balcony garden without a window, growing vegetables in pots will be a good option for you. Here are some tips to help you get started. The first step is to choose a variety of vegetables you want to grow.

If space is an issue, choose plants that require deep pots. For instance, you can grow a miniature lemon tree or lime tree in a planter that is at least 35 cm deep. Miniature citrus trees are great for a balcony garden because they grow large crops of regular-sized fruit. Make sure to purchase pots with drainage holes, especially if you plan to plant roots. Some containers are heavy and must have a handle to move them.

Bell pepper, also known as capsicum, is a great choice for a balcony garden. It comes in various colors and varieties and is used in a wide range of dishes. It also makes a great pizza topping. Pepper plants will produce fruit throughout the growing season. When planning a balcony garden, make sure you have all of the necessary conditions in place before you begin planting. It is essential that you have sufficient sunlight and water.

Avoiding wind

If you want to grow a lush, beautiful garden on a balcony, you should be aware of the factors that can cause your plot to be exposed to wind. Plants in containers or plots should be planted in a 1:1 ratio of compost, peat, and perlite, and watered as necessary. A slow-release organic fertilizer or compost tea should be used twice a week. Balcony plants are particularly vulnerable to high winds, which can knock down small pots and cause increased dehydration. To avoid this problem, you should fasten your pots or planters to a stable structure, and make sure your planting soil is well drained to prevent soil compaction. For a more efficient water-saving strategy, consider growing your plants in a thick mulch to minimize evaporation.

Consider the location of your balcony and its proximity to the windows. If your balcony gets a lot of wind, you can use windscreens or stake plants in a place that gets low winds. Be sure to check the direction and strength of the wind before planting, and choose heavier pots or containers. Avoid windy areas where you can’t see your plants. Otherwise, windy spots may be unavoidable.

When choosing the location of your garden, make sure you choose the right type of plants. Tender, vining plants are not the best choice for a balcony, and they aren’t ideal for growing in windy climates. Instead, choose tougher crops such as tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and green leafy vegetables. You can also grow all types of herbs. Just remember to choose planters with good drainage and soil for a successful garden.

Planting in containers

If you’re considering growing vegetables on your balcony, you’ll find that many of the same plants can be grown in containers. Many vegetables are suitable for container gardening, and most of them require only adequate sunlight and appropriate soil to thrive. In fact, you can even grow vegetables in containers on a balcony if you don’t have any land at all! Vegetables grown in containers are a great choice for apartment dwellers and can be enjoyed right outside your home!

For a more compact, but still-succulent, container garden, opt for cool-season varieties. For example, you can choose lettuce, which grows well in hanging baskets and can be harvested whenever needed. Planting beans, such as pole beans, is a great idea for a sunny corner of a balcony. Lettuce, for instance, can be harvested right through fall, if you live in an area with a cool summer.

To grow vegetables in containers, you’ll want to use special potting soil. The mixture is lighter weight, so you can place it on your balcony. Moreover, many container planting soils contain fertilizer, whether it is in the form of organic materials or pellets. Make sure to follow the instructions on the label so you don’t waste valuable fertilizer! You can also use composted manure, rice washings, fish rinse water, or even your own nutrient solution!

Container gardening reduces waste

There are many advantages of container gardening for starting a balcony vegetable garden. The first is that it’s easy to maintain. You just need to invest in good potting soil, interest, patience, and a bit of planning. In addition, container gardening is highly cost-effective. Here are some of the other benefits of container gardening for your balcony:

Aside from the reduction in waste, container gardening can be moved around throughout the day. You can choose plants that require a lot of sunlight – most vegetables need about six hours of direct sunlight a day – or you can plant varieties that require dappled or partial shade. The growing requirements of different types of plants can be found on the back of the seed packets. If you’re limited on space, consider growing strawberries in a large container.

Aside from being portable and space-saving, container gardening is an excellent option for people with limited space. This method also reduces soil-borne disease risks and virtually eliminates weeds. You also have more control over the environment, allowing you to grow the plants you want, without compromising on the quality of the produce. Just be sure to invest in good potting material that allows for proper drainage and aeration.

Essential Tips for Starting a Balcony Vegetable Garden | Urban Gardening

Easy Gardening – Garden Seed Tapes

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What are Seed Tapes?

Seed tapes are products designed with seeds perfectly attached between narrow strips of biodegradable tissue layers, which are ready for planting in both the garden and house. They are ideal for sowing in containers, large empty garden plots, as well as fill-ins in tighter areas.

The seeds are applied at the correct distance along the tapes to reduce overcrowding of newly germinated seedlings. The tapes can consist of a single variety, custom mixtures, and multiple species of seeds. You can find products with flower, vegetable, and herb seeds embedded into them.

What are the Advantages of Seed Tapes?

  • Provide an easy and efficient way to plant tiny seeds quickly.
  • Seeds are planted at the same depth allowing for a more uniform germination rate.
  • Seed tapes enable you to space plants evenly and eliminate seed wastage. This helps avoid overcrowding that may call for thinning of young seedlings, which is a tedious and time-consuming task.
  • Less thinning also means less disturbance to the root of plants left in your garden. Otherwise, you risk delaying or inhibiting the growth and even performance of the plants.
  • Prevents birds from eating the fresh seeds that you sow.
  • Makes the sowed seeds less susceptible to wash away in a downpour and ruining the evenly spaced rows.
  • Almost all the seed tape products are biodegradable and considered to be environmental-friendly.
  • Very convenient for senior gardeners, particularly those suffering from arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, or other mobility complications.

What are the types of Seed tapes?

Seed tapes

Seed tapes are one of the most common types, which are ideal for growing most vegetable seed varieties, salads, as well as flower seeds. They are usually available in different lengths, especially between one to six meters. However, it is possible to have the garden vegetable seed tapes produced in specific lengths to suit your unique gardening needs. Also, the seed tapes can come as a single track containing one variety of seeds or multiple tracks with different seed varieties.

Seed discs

Seed discs are designed in different sizes. You’ll find smaller and larger seed discs. With smaller seed discs, the diameter often ranges from 8cm to 12 cm, a size that easily fits most typical flowerpots. They are perfectly suited for sowing herbs indoor, such as in the kitchen or windowsills.

The larger discs, on the other hand, range from 14cm to 46cm in diameter. You can use them for sowing seeds in outdoor pots, as well as hanging containers or baskets.

Seed mats

If you want to sow seeds in big planters, garden borders or window boxes, then seeds mats are a great option. With seed mats, you can easily produce a great color display of stunning bedding plants. Well, good examples of such plants include marigolds and pansies.

The size of seed mats vary. Often than not, you’ll find mats available in the size of a small business card and up to 100cm in length.

Seed carpets

Seeds carpets are suitable for planting salads, mixed vegetables, and wildflower fusions in large borders or other large garden areas. They are simply ready-made “mini-gardens” or “allotments,” which are usually one meter or larger in length.

How to Use Seed Tapes

It’s an incredibly easy process. First off, you’ll need to prepare the soil for planting, just like you would with any new seedbed. Once you have a weed-free garden bed, it’s often recommended to follow the guidelines on the package of the seed tapes, discs, carpets, or mats.

In most cases though, you’ll be required to place the seed tapes in a straight line on the soil using the proper rowing space. After that, gently cover it with the top layer soil and then water the area. However, you should avoid prolonged watering after sowing.

If the soil has not been moistened by Mother Nature, consider watering it several hours before sowing. But don’t make the garden bed sopping wet.

Where to buy Seed tapes

You can find the different types of seed tapes we’ve discussed above at most local garden centers or nurseries, DIY stores, and grocery stores. Alternatively, you can just buy from reputable online garden retailers.

Gardening – How To Grow Blueberries

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The blueberry not only bears delicious fruit high in fiber and vitamin C but does double duty as an ornamental landscape shrub. Blueberries are very easy for the home gardener to grow and enjoy.

Choosing Blueberries

  • Chose blueberry varieties appropriate to you garden hardiness zone.
  • While blueberries are technically self-pollinating, the use of at least two different varieties will greatly enhance fruit size and yield.

Planting Blueberries

  • Plant with soil 1/4”- 1 1/2” above the root system
  • Spaced 4 ft. apart and mulched regularly.
  • Blueberries require acid soil with a pH of5-5.0 with a high organic content to maintain moisture.
  • Newly planted blueberries will need deep watering during their first spring and summer so they can establish themselves.

Caring For Blueberries

  • For best fruit production deep water when the berries begin to set and grow.
  • Add iron sulfate to acidify the soil, if needed.
  • Unless you have acidic soil, grow blueberries in large pots.
  • Feed with a fertilizer formulated for blueberries (according to package).
  • Mulching will improve plant health and fruit yield.
  • Pine needles are good mulch for acid-loving

Blueberry Problems

  • Insects and disease are rarely a problem.
  • Netting and other protective measures for birds may be required when berries begin to ripen.

Harvesting Blueberries

  • Harvest after berries has been blue for a few days for peak nutrient content.
  • The immediate consumption or preservation of the berries is recommended.
  • Blueberries can be used in smoothies, scones, muffins and a whole range of other delicious desserts. However, freezing my well be the easiest and way to preserve blueberries for future use.

Gardening – How To Grow Apricot Trees

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The apricots are a fine addition to a home-growing repertoire. Apricot trees can be grown as fans, bushes, or pyramid-shaped examples, or left to grow to a natural shape. Dwarf varieties are available which can be grown in containers, small spaces in the landscape, or trained along walls so that apricot trees can be suitable for even the very smallest of gardens.

Why Grow Apricot Trees?

If you want to know why grow apricot trees, you should first understand their needs. These small fruit trees are quite vigorous and can quickly outgrow your existing trees. Pruning is necessary for good growth, and apricots will need pruning every year. The roots of an apricot tree are larger than those of other fruit trees. To plant an apricot, place it in the soil at the same depth as it was in the nursery. You will see the grafting point, which should be above the level of the surrounding soil. The roots of an apricot should be covered with at least two inches of soil. You can water it lightly in the winter, and once it begins to bloom, it will require pruning again.

Appropriate watering will help your apricot tree grow and produce fruit. Since apricots are dependent on regular watering, you will want to water them regularly. This will encourage healthy growth, ensure a strong tree and healthy fruiting. By providing your apricot trees with the proper amount of water, you’ll be rewarded with beautiful fruit. The weight and size of your crop will be greatly increased. For optimal growth and fruiting, watering your apricot trees regularly is key from May to September. If you have a watering system installed, it will ensure that your apricot trees receive regular irrigation.

Choosing a proper location is also important for growing an apricot tree. Sites with heavy clay soil and frequent frosts are not ideal for apricots. A good site for growing an apricot tree is a slope that is well-drained and has high air circulation. Soil with good drainage is also important. You should also consider planting apricot trees near water as they will require more water during the growing season.

When choosing a location for your apricot tree, choose one that is near other fruiting trees. The plants should have at least 50 feet of space between each other. This will allow them to grow in the shade of neighboring trees and pollinate them for you. Choosing a location for your apricots will determine the quality of the fruit that you will get. The trees will also require shade to survive in harsh climates.

The primary reason to grow apricot trees is to ensure that the climate is cool enough for them to flower. Apricot trees are the first fruiting trees to blossom, and pollination is essential for producing a high quality crop. However, unpredictable weather conditions can lead to poor fruit set, so be sure to plant them close to other trees for a better chance of getting fruit. You will be pleased with the results, but they will take several years.

The apricot tree is easy to grow. Its name comes from the Latin praecocium, which means “precocious”. The apricot tree produces its sweet fruit in November to February. The height of the apricot depends on the variety, and the trunk may grow as tall as 40cm. The apricot tree is not too difficult to maintain. It will produce fruit if properly cared for.

The apricot tree is a hardy perennial that thrives in well-drained soil. It grows well in a pot for as long as five years. The fruit will ripen between June and August and is a delicious and ornamental tree. It’s also easy to propagate and maintain. It requires little maintenance. Apricots are an attractive ornamental fruit that has a long shelf life.

Pruning is an essential part of apricot tree care. To maximize apricot production, apricot trees should be pruned once a year. Generally, this will happen in the spring and fall. It’s best to prune out weak or outgrowing branches in order to create better air circulation. While apricot trees can survive in the winter, they need extra watering.

The best time to plant apricot trees is in early spring, but you should consider planting them on higher ground for best results. While they can be transplanted easily, they need special care. They need deep, well-drained soil and plenty of organic matter to thrive and fruit. They should be planted in the shade or away from strong winds. And, they should be protected from frost. But the key is to know how to take care of them.

Choosing an Apricot Tree

If you choose a self-fertile, you will only need to buy one apricot tree, which can crop without a partner tree. It is important to choose an apricot tree suited to the exact conditions where you live. The crucial factor is when the tree will blossom. Apricots tend to bloom early, so can be prone to frost damage if there is a danger of a late frost in your area. Bryan, Hungarian and Moorpark Apricots could all be good options for zone 8 in Texas.

Planting an Apricot Tree

Apricot trees will grow best in sunny, wind and frost sheltered, locations. They like deep, moisture-retentive, well-drained, and ideally slightly alkaline soil and will struggle in shallow soils which have low fertility. Be sure to space your Apricot trees according to the space requirements of the variety you have chosen.  Generally, I like to add two feet to the spacing to provide clearance for picking and maintenance. Mulch the trees with rich compost or well-rotted manure in March and early April. Mulch will help to fertilize and keep down competitive weeds.

Caring For an Apricot Tree

Newly-planted Apricot trees will need deep watering during their first spring and summer so they can establish themselves. For best fruit production deep water when the fruits begin to set and grow. Mature trees may also need to be watered if there are drought conditions.

If your tree is cropping heavily, then you should thin apricots to around 8-10 cm intervals when they are roughly the size of hazelnuts. You may also wish to prune for shape and size at the same time.

Apricots require insects for pollination. If there are not enough insects around yet when the tree breaks into bloom, then you may need to pollinate by hand to achieve the best possible yield. Better still is to encourage pollinators into your garden by companion planting apricot trees with a beneficial guild of plants that can help gather nutrients and which will attract bees and other pollinators to your yard.

Harvesting Apricots

Apricots will be ready to harvest in late June through August. The Apricots are ready to pick when the fruits have a golden-yellow color, are soft, and detach easily from the tree. Take care when harvesting to avoid bruising the delicate fruits and the immediate consumption or preservation of the fruit is strongly recommended. Apricots can be used in preserves, a whole range of delicious desserts, and dehydrated as a healthy treat.

HOW TO GROW APRICOT TREES COMPLETE GROWING GUIDE

Gardening – How To Grow Peach Trees

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Peaches are such attractive trees and have such delicious fruit – no wonder they are a favorite with many gardeners in the climate zone. Peaches are a delicious, fresh taste of the summer and there is nothing better than being able to pick these juicy fruits from your garden.

Choosing a Peach Tree

Most peaches are self-fertile and so will not require a companion tree to fruit. However, you may wish to consider choosing different peach varieties to be able to harvest these delicious fruits over a longer period. Peaches that do well in zone 8 gardens include Gulf Crimson, Early Golden Glory, Bicentennial, Sentinel, Redglobe, Milam, and Fayette. Ask your local garden center, master gardener or agriculture extension office for other examples of peach trees that will do best where you live.

To grow a peach tree, you’ll need to plant it in a pot. This article will discuss the best way to plant peach trees, where to plant them, and which varieties to choose. This article will also discuss how to care for the tree and what to expect during the first season of growth. Read on to learn more. Until then, enjoy your new fruit tree! And be sure to stop by next time you’re at home to pick up a peach!

Where to Plant a Peach Tree

If you’ve ever had a peach, you’ll know that planting a peach tree is no easy task. You’ll need an area that is at least 5 feet by 1.5 metres (1.6 x 3 feet) and a spot that drains well. Peach trees also require good drainage, so you’ll want to plant them in an area where they don’t have to compete with grassy areas. You should also plant the tree at a depth of 12 inches, so that the roots can spread out and not be bent or impeded by the ground.

Peach trees prefer a pH of between 6.0 and 7.0. Before planting, check the pH of your soil to ensure it is appropriate. Peach trees need soil that is naturally fertilized, so they require a well-draining, lightweight loamy soil. Avoid planting peach trees in low, wet areas, as they could experience root rot. You can also plant peach trees in containers.

When to Plant a Peach Tree

Fall is a good time to plant a peach tree. It allows the roots to continue growing during the winter, so they won’t freeze solid in the spring. Planting in the fall will also reduce the stress on the tree. Peach trees should be planted in the fall rather than spring, as spring planting causes too much stress for the tree. Fall planting also allows the trees to grow roots that will be ready for harvest in the spring.

When to plant a peach tree, start by testing your soil to see how pH levels are. Peach trees prefer a soil pH level between 6.0 and 7.0. Peach trees prefer a soil that is naturally enriched with organic matter. They also like well-drained soil. Peach trees should not be planted in an area where water is scarce or the soil is too wet. However, you can purchase peach trees from a nursery that are shipped bare-root or in containers.

How to Plant a Peach Tree

Peach trees require the same care as any other fruit tree. Water the tree regularly, especially during periods of low rainfall. Pruning and thinning the fruit are two ways to improve the yield of your peach tree. The soil should be evenly moist, but never soggy. Peach trees will need fertilization as well. Once the tree is established, following these care tips will ensure that you get a bountiful harvest.

Peach trees grow best on slopes or hilltops. Cooler air runs downhill, protecting the delicate blossoms. Before planting, test the pH level of your soil and adjust it with sulfur or lime. You can do this about six to twelve months before planting your peach tree. Remember to supplement the soil with water as needed. Aside from fertilizing the soil, peach trees also need ample water. Soil pH levels should be adjusted before planting, as the fruit tree grows rapidly without proper irrigation.

After planting the tree, it is important to prune it properly. The aim of pruning is to create an open, vase-shaped tree. Select 3-5 branches at an angle of 45 to 70 degrees from the trunk. Also remove all branches that are more than one year old. Ideally, prune the branches to three feet long, and space them evenly. Alternatively, you can also prune the tree every year. If you decide to cut the branches of your peach tree, make sure you prune them regularly to maintain the shape and size of your tree.

Best Varieties Of Peach Trees

The best variety of peach tree will depend on where it’s being grown. Some are easy to grow and are not worth the trouble of grafting. Some trees have a very high yield but don’t produce as many fruits as others. Peach trees are a great way to add variety to your garden. Here are some suggestions to make your peach-growing experience more rewarding. Listed below are the best varieties of peach trees for your garden.

Garden Gold: This peach tree produces large, soft freestone fruits that average fist size. The flesh is golden yellow with a blush of red. Fruits from this tree ripen from July to August. Garden Gold peach trees grow to five to six feet tall and prefer full sun. They grow well in pots or containers. This is a good choice for coastal locations. The fruit is delicious and good for freezing or canning.

Watering a Peach Tree

When watering a peach tree, keep in mind that peach trees don’t like to be wet. They need a well-drained soil, as excess water around the roots of the peach tree can cause them to quickly die. You can fertilize the tree every year with a fertilizer rich in nitrogen, but remember that excessive growth leads to an unhealthy tree’s framework. Moreover, peach trees with excessively vigorous growth usually develop narrow crotches and an upright growth habit.

In South Carolina, the climate is humid and provides water throughout the growing season. However, peach trees have high water requirements during certain times of the year. Without proper watering, the fruit’s quality and yield will be compromised. Peaches are especially sensitive to insufficient water about three weeks before harvest. In addition, a mature peach tree will need 35 to 45 gallons of water per day. The smallest peach trees, meanwhile, usually don’t require irrigation at all.

Fertilizing a Peach Tree

As a fruit tree, peaches require a good supply of nitrogen to thrive. The soil pH should be 6.5 or higher, and peach trees should be fertilized at least once a year to ensure optimal fruit growth. Organic fertilizers like peat moss and compost can help improve soil fertility and increase water retention, but should be applied only when instructed. Peach trees are not good candidates for fertilization close to the trunk, as the fertilizer could burn the tree’s trunk and prevent roots from receiving the nutrients they need.

Ideally, you should fertilize your peach tree twice a year, once in early spring and once in late summer. The first time you fertilize a peach tree is the spring when the tree has just emerged from the soil, but in frost-prone areas, you should stop feeding two months before the first frost. Fertilizing a Peach tree involves a soil test, which must be done before you begin. Different soil types and locations contain different elements, and you must find out which one your peach tree needs.

Pests And Diseases Of a Peach Tree

Peach leaf curl is a common fungus that infects the leaves, fruit, and flowers of peach trees. Infected leaves curl and pucker in the center. Leaves also turn yellow and eventually drop from the tree. Severe cases can weaken the tree and affect the quality of the fruit. Affected leaves are often covered in white powder. This fungus is spread by water splashes.

The adult twospotted mite injures peach foliage, similar to the European red mite. Adult twospotted mites spend the winter on the lower part of peach trees and move upward as the season progresses. Their population peak is in August. The best way to control twospotted mite infestations is to use carbomate insecticides to kill their predators. Luckily, twospotted mites are not difficult to kill.

During the dormant period, sprays with dormant oil can control most insects. The oil will kill the eggs on the tree’s branch and trunk before they reach flower buds. Early spring spraying with endosulfan directly on the tree will prevent peach borers. Despite this, timing is essential in controlling the coddling moth. One spray should be applied just before new larvae appear.

Harvested Peaches in a bowl

Harvesting a Peach Tree

When is it time to harvest your peach tree? If you’ve ever had to wait for peaches to ripen, you know how difficult it is. Peaches should be plumper and round when they’re ripe, but if you can’t tell by looking at them, you might have to wait a few more days. Peaches with green hints aren’t ready yet.

If you’re not sure when to prune your peach tree, start with pruning the branches at the top of the tree. This allows more light to reach the rest of the tree. Your tree should be in a bowl shape, with three or five main branches and numerous smaller branching for the fruit. Use pruning diagrams or pictures to help you decide which way to prune your tree. After pruning, make sure to keep the center open and prune the fruiting branches every six to eight inches. This will help the remaining fruits grow bigger and tastier.

If you’re growing a peach tree in your yard, make sure to select a climate zone that is not too cold or too hot. They do best in warm, dry climates. Cool, wet summers will be too difficult for your peach tree to grow. Peaches can grow up to 25 feet tall, but dwarf varieties are only about six feet tall. Peach trees need full sunlight to produce fruit, so make sure you’ve chosen a location with full sunlight.

A Guide To Mulching in a Permaculture Garden

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Mulch is merely the name given to the layer or layers of organic material that is laid on top of the existing topsoil in your garden. Mulching is an essential practice in a ‘no dig,’ permaculture garden. This guide to mulching in a permaculture garden will help you understand why we mulch, what materials can be used as mulch, how and where they should be applied. Read on to get a better understanding of this important permaculture gardening technique.

 Why Mulching in Important in a Permaculture Garden

An understanding of where and how we use mulches begins with an understanding of why we mulch in the first place. There are some reasons why mulching is important in organic gardens. These include:

  • Mulching protects the soil surface from erosion and disruption.
  • Mulching can add nutrients to the soil.
  • Mulching helps the soil to retain moisture.
  • Mulching can help to suppress weed growth.
  • Mulching can be beneficial to a range of wildlife.

 Natural Mulch Materials

Some different materials can be used to mulch your growing areas. These include:

  • Wood chip or bark
  • Straw or ‘Strulch’ (Composted straw)
  • Fresh leaves (from a variety of different plants)
  • Leaf mold (Rotted-down Fall leaves)
  • Grass clippings
  • Compost
  • Well-rotted manure

The benefits of using natural mulch materials are that these materials can often be found for free in your garden or the surrounding area.

Choosing the Right Mulch

When it comes to applying mulch, it is always important to consider where the growing area you are mulching is located, and the plants that are being or will be grown there. The mulch that it is best to use will depend on these factors, as well as the local availability of natural materials.

Each of the mulches mentioned above has strengths and weaknesses in a given situation. While each may be excellent for some applications, the same one can also have a detrimental effect when placed in the wrong location.

For example, wood chip or bark can be an excellent choice for mulching beneath trees or large shrubs but may be detrimental when used around younger plants or annual vegetables. As the wood decomposes, this takes a lot of nitrogen from the soil, so may be harmful to small, leafy plants that need a lot of nitrogen to grow. Grass clippings, on the other hand, are very high in nitrogen, so a mulch from your mowed lawn could be ideal for members of the cabbage family, or other nitrogen hungry plants. This mulch may be too rich in nitrogen for other crops, however, so should be used with caution.

Creating a New Planting Area With Sheet Mulching

One of the great things about the techniques used in mulching is that they can be used to create new growing areas, as well as being used in existing garden growing areas. No matter what you wish to plant, you can create a fertile, moisture retentive place to grow in by sheet mulching an area with layers of natural mulch materials. Sometimes, these sheet mulch beds are called ‘lasagna gardens’ since the layers are built up in much the same way as you might make lasagna in your garden.

Mulch wisely and you will create a thriving garden ecosystem that can serve you and your household for many years to come.

Gardening – A Permaculture Garden Guide To Composting

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One of the key skills any permaculture gardener should learn is how to create good compost. Creating a good compost is key to creating abundant, productive and sustainable permaculture gardens. If you want to be able to grow your food using permaculture principles then creating compost is one of the foundations upon which your garden will be based. This guide to composting in a permaculture garden will help you make your garden the thriving, resource-rich ecosystem that it should be.

Why Composting is Important

 Composting is an important element of gardening because it allows you to adhere to the permaculture ethic of returning the surplus to the system. It allows you to eliminate waste, and make full use of the natural resources at your disposal. It enables you to care for the soil of your growing areas, and to make them rich, fertile places to grow a range of fruit trees and other edible and useful plants. When you create and use compost in your garden, you are completing the natural cycles and creating systems that can endure and sustain for many years to come.

Composting Methods

 There are some different ways to create compost. The main methods used in a permaculture garden are:

  • Composting in Place (Sheet mulching with organic materials and allowing them to decompose on top of the soil of your growing areas.)
  • Cold Composting (Creating a heap or large bin in which compost is slowly created.)
  • Hot Composting (Creating the conditions for faster, warmer decomposition in a bin or other container.)
  • Vermiculture (Creating compost with the help of special worms.)

Creating Compost in a Permaculture Garden

 No matter which method you are using to create your compost, the principles at play remain the same. You are taking organic materials that are considered to be ‘waste’ and creating the conditions for their decomposition. Once decomposed, the compost is used to conserve or enhance the fertility of the soil.

Creating a good compost involves a basic understanding of the different sorts of material in a compost heap. The materials are grouped into two categories – carbon-rich ‘brown’ materials and nitrogen-rich ‘green’ materials. Both types are necessary to create a good-quality compost. Brown materials include cardboard, straw, twiggy material, wood chips, and bark. Green materials include green leafy matter, grass clippings, and fruit and vegetable scraps.

To get a good mix in your compost, you should add ‘brown’ and ‘green’ materials in thin layers. Adding in thin layers allows for the right conditions for aerobic decomposition and helps to ensure that your compost does not become too wet or too dry.

In addition to thinking about getting the right mix of carbon-rich and nitrogen-rich materials in your compost, creating good compost also involves thinking about getting a good balance of the main nutrients that plants need to grow: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as the various micro-nutrients needed by plant life. Adding a good mix of different ingredients to your compost will help to create compost with a good nutrient balance.

Creating compost is not rocket science. Anyone can create good, crumbly compost for use in their forest gardens or polyculture vegetable beds.

Gardening – A Guide To Attracting Wildlife in a Permaculture Garden

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 If you are a keen gardener then doubtless you love watching the wildlife that comes into your garden. You may enjoy watching the birds, for example. In a permaculture garden, you will discover that the whole ecosystem teems with life. Food forests and other diverse garden ecosystems are great at attracting wildlife – far better than a boring lawn! This guide to attracting wildlife in a permaculture garden will help you understand the reasons to attract wildlife and learn how to attract wildlife in a range of different ways.

 What Wildlife Can Do For Us

 It is lovely to watch wildlife in your garden – but this is not the only reason why, as gardeners, we should do all we can to encourage a range of creatures into our backyards. Here are some of the many things that a diverse range of wildlife can do for us:

  • Pollinate our fruit trees and other food crops.
  • Predate pest species such as aphids and blackfly, slugs and snails.
  • Add fertility to the garden soil (through droppings, for example).
  • Spread seeds and propagate useful plant material.
  • Aerate soil and aid in nutrient transmission and spread.
  • ‘Recycle’ old plant material and help in decomposition.
  • Naturally ‘prune’ plants and trees through grazing.
  • Increase diversity and beneficial interactions, thereby making your garden ecosystem more stable and resilient.

Almost every mechanism and natural cycle in an organic garden involve some form of wildlife in some way. The more you think about what wildlife is doing for you, the more you will appreciate the creatures, large and small, with whom you share your space.

 Attracting Wildlife Through Planting

 One of the most important things that we can do as gardeners to attract beneficial wildlife to our gardens is to plant a wide range of wildlife-friendly plants. For example, certain flowers will be particularly good at attracting bees and other pollinators, while fruiting trees or bushes may attract birds and mammals that eat pest species.

When planting for bees and other pollinators, it is important to consider providing for these insects throughout the year by choosing appropriate plants that are in bloom in Spring, Summer, and Fall. A useful list of bee-friendly plants for Central Texas gardens can be found here: Central Texas Bee-Friendly Plants. You’ll also be able to find out more about which plants to choose to attract different types of wildlife by chatting to other local gardeners and the staff of local plant nurseries and garden centers.

 Attracting Wildlife Through Habitat Creation

 Beyond choosing the right plants, there is more than gardeners can do to attract wildlife. By creating a range of different habitats in your backyard, you can attract a wide variety of different creatures. For example, a garden pond could encourage aquatic creatures to move in and can also be a boon to birds, mammals, and insects. A brush pile will provide shelter for bugs, beetles, and other creatures. Bird boxes, feeders, and baths can help to create a bird-friendly habitat. Try to create diverse environments of shade and sun, cool and hot, to increase the natural diversity in your garden and make it more resilient.

Related Reference

Gardening – How To Grow Cherry Trees

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Cherry trees are an excellent choice for your forest garden. Not only will you be treated to a wonderful yield of delicious cherries, but you will also have a beautiful display of blossom in the spring. When you choose the right varieties, cherries can do well in a zone 8 Texan garden. Aside from providing delicious fruit, cherry tree flowers can also be of benefit to insects, especially bees, and help to increase the biodiversity of insect and animal life in your garden.

Choosing a Cherry Tree

It is essential to be aware when choosing a cherry tree that some varieties are sweet and others are sour. Sweet cherries can be eaten raw, and yet it is important to note that not all sweet cherries are self-fertile and many will need a companion tree to bear fruit. Sour cherries generally are self-fertile and will do fine as a single tree.

Planting a Cherry Tree

 Cherry trees prefer deep, fertile, and well-drained soil. The soil pH level should be between 6.5-6.7 and full sun.

  • Sweet Cherry trees do not do well as undergrowth situations. Sweet Cherry trees do not like shallow, sandy or waterlogged soil. Bing and Lapins are sweet cherry varieties that can thrive in zone 8.
  • Tart Cherry trees, will tolerate a limited amount of partial shade. Montmorency and North Star are options for sour cherry trees for the region.

 Caring For a Cherry Tree

 Cherry trees will do best when planted between November and March, to the same depth as they were in the pot. Cherry trees should be mulched with organic compost in late February, and if you desire to use commercial fertilizer stakes, this is the time to place the fertilizer stakes just outside the drip line if the cherry tree.

The area around the tree (inside the drip line and a couple of feet outside the drip line) should be well mulched on top of the compost and kept clear of grass and other competing vegetation. It is essential to deep water your cherry trees frequently and keeps them well-mulched for the first couple of years to ensure they thrive.

A guild of comfrey and beneficial herbs and flowers around the base will help cherry trees to become established and keep them healthy.

If you want to shape your cherry tree, then the pruning should be pruned once established during the summer, between late July and the end of August. If you choose to prune be conservative in your pruning and be aware of the type of cherry tree you are pruning:

  • Sweet cherries form on wood that is one year old and older.
  • Tart cherries form almost all their cherries on growth from the previous season. With the tart cherries, you will have to make sure that you get the balance when pruning between one-year-old fruiting wood and new replacement branches.

Harvesting Cherries

The sugar content in sweet cherries increases dramatically in the final few days of ripening, so it is essential to wait until the fruits are entirely ripe before harvesting. Sour cherries will come off the stem when ripe and ready, while sweet cherries should be tasted to determine whether or not they are ready for harvest. Take care when harvesting not to damage the fruiting wood spur, which will produce more fruit next year. Leave stems intact if you plan to store cherries for any length of time.

Sweet cherries are best eaten straight from the tree, as soon after harvesting as possible, while sour cherries can be cooked into a range of preserves and desserts.

How to Grow Cherry Trees – Complete Growing Guide

How to Incorporate Perennial Cooking Herbs into Your Backyard Landscaping

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Herbs can add flavor to recipes throughout the year, and are surprisingly easy to grow at home in your backyard. Perennial herbs are particularly easy to grow. Unlike annual herbs, these plants remain year after year, requiring little care and attention once your garden is established. If you are a keen cook or want to become one, then growing your own perennial herbs is a must. Herbs can easily be grown in a regular annual or perennial vegetable bed, or as part of a forest garden.

Why Plant Perennial Herbs? 

There are many different reasons to plant perennial herbs in your garden. These reasons include:

  • The taste. Perennial herbs enliven a range of recipes.
  • Ease and simplicity. Perennial herbs are easy to care for and take up less of a gardener’s time and effort.
  • Perennial herbs carry a range of health benefits when used in cooking and in herbal remedies for a range of common health ailments.
  • Perennial herbs can also be used to make a range of home-made cleaning and beauty products.
  • Perennial herbs can help to reduce pest problems – some aromatic herbs can repel or confuse many pest species, while others can attract predatory insects which help keep pest numbers down.
  • Some perennial herbs also attract bees and other pollinators to your garden. Pollination is essential to obtain an edible yield from many fruit trees and other plants.
  • Perennial herbs can often smell great and can add to the visual amenity of your backyard. 

Choosing Perennial Herbs for Your Forest Garden

 To grow perennial herbs in your forest garden, or elsewhere on your property, it is important to understand that this diverse group of plants has a range of very different growing requirements. Some perennial herbs are best grown in full sun, while others will benefit from the shade that fruit trees and perennial bushes can provide. Even many hot-climate, sun-loving herbs can benefit from a little-dappled shade in the hottest part of the summer so it could be a good idea to grow them on the fringes of a forest garden area.

Edible Perennial Herbs to Consider for Your Urban Garden 

Most cooks and gardeners will already no doubt be fully familiar with some perennial herbs that can be grown in a zone 8 Texan climate. These include sage, oregano, rosemary, and thyme, as well as lavender. All of these Mediterranean culinary herbs can grow very well in Texas when given the right growing conditions to thrive, though some will do best when given an open, sheltered, fairly sunny position, and a little protection from the hot sun in mid-summer. Pineapple sage (Salvia elegans) is better suited for Texan gardeners than other salvias. Marjoram can be grown in Texas, but often Mexican Mint Marigold (Tagetes Lucita) is grown as an alternative that is better suited to local growing conditions.

Bay, chives, garlic chives and a wide range of mints do need some moisture and will suit a more shady spot in a forest garden where conditions do not get as hot and dry. Be warned, however, mints can be extremely aggressive and can spread like wildfire. They can form an excellent ground cover in a forest garden setting, but if you would prefer not to have them take over, then you can choose to grow mint in containers.

In addition to the familiar culinary herbs mentioned above, Texan forest gardeners should also consider growing a range of more unusual herbs. Herbs which can thrive in Texas in the shade of trees and fruit bushes in a forest garden include:

  • Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosiodes),
  • Salad Burnet (Sanguisorba minor),
  • Winter Savory (Satureja montana),
  • Violets (Viola odorata),
  • yarrow (Achillea millefolium),
  • Lovage (Levisticum officinale),
  • Valerian (Valeriana officinalis),
  • and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).

All these herbs have culinary uses or can be used to make herbal teas.

Non-Edible Perennial Herbs for A Forest Garden

 In addition to growing a wide range of perennial culinary herbs, gardeners should also incorporate other herbaceous perennials in their edible forest gardens. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is one plant that is particularly useful in a forest garden setting. When placed in full sun, comfrey can go dormant during the hot summer in Texas, though when planted in the shade of fruiting trees or other trees in a forest garden setting, comfrey can be attractive and useful year round. It is important to be careful where you place comfrey, as the roots go extremely deep and new plants will spring up from root sections, making it almost impossible to remove once established. However, when well placed, comfrey can be a really valuable addition to your garden. Though not edible for humans, comfrey can aid in the growth of food-producing plants. 

Planting Herbs for Garden Health 

Comfrey’s deep roots are one of the reasons why this herbaceous plant is so useful to organic gardeners. As a dynamic accumulator, comfrey takes nutrients from deep below the soil and when chopped and dropped around other plants, returns those nutrients to the topsoil, where they can be taken up by other plants. Other good dynamic accumulators include the edible culinary herb, yarrow, as well as ‘weeds’ such as the dandelion. Incorporating perennial herbs that are good dynamic accumulators can be great for the overall health of your garden. 

Planting for Wildlife 

Many of the perennial herbs mentioned above are also fantastic for local wildlife. Attracting wildlife to your garden and increasing biodiversity can make organic gardening easier by keeping all the elements of a forest garden in natural balance. When they flower, many herbs will attract beneficial insects for predation of pests and for pollination.

Sowing or planting and growing a range of perennial cooking herbs in your backyard edible food forest can be a great way to eat well year round and to make sure you have a sustainable, productive and efficient garden ecosystem in the years to come

Gardening – How to Use Landscape With Perennial Bushes For Food

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In a forest garden, perennial bushes and trees form the main structure of the ecosystem. Bushes create a mid-layer between the tree canopy and the herbaceous layer below, helping gardeners to make the most of their space and grow their own food in a beautiful, woodland-inspired setting.

The Benefits of Perennial Planting

Many people choose to grow at least some of their own food at home. But annual vegetable gardening can be a lot of hard work! Forest gardens made up of perennial plants which will endure year after year can be a much easier way to produce an edible yield. Here are some of the benefits of perennial planting:

  • Perennial planting, once established, requires less time and fewer resources to manage.
  • Perennial plants help to attract wildlife and maintain a vibrant, biodiverse ecosystem.
  • Perennial plants are often easy to propagate to increase plant stocks.

 Choosing Perennial Bushes for an Edible Forest Garden

 Before choosing any plants for your forest garden, it is important to understand not only the needs of any plants you are considering but also the details of climate and conditions where you live. Consider sunlight, wind, precipitation levels, soil conditions and other factors to choose the right plants for the right places.

It is also important to think about why each perennial bush deserves to earn a place in your urban food forest. These shrubs might be selected for their berries or edible leaves. They might be selected due to their ability to fix nitrogen from the air, or as a good source of biomass that can be composted or chopped and dropped to return fertility to the soil.

When selecting perennial bushes for placement in a forest garden setting, it is important to consider how much light is needed by each bush you are considering. Bear in mind the shade that will be cast by the tree layer above them, now, and in future years as trees grow.


Perennial Fruit Bushes to Consider for your Food Forest
 

In Texas, hardiness zone 8, there are many perennial fruit bushes that will thrive in a backyard food forest. Berry bushes that you might consider in this climate zone include Aronia melanocarpa, blue elderberry, Ceylon gooseberry, Goumi (Elaeagnus), Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), Mulberry, Jostaberry, Serviceberry, Wolfberry, barberry, and certain blackberry and Ribes varieties.


It is a good idea, when selecting your perennial fruit bushes, to speak with experts at a local garden center or plant nursery, who will be able to advise you on the best types varieties of berry bush to grow in your particular area. You should observe which plants thrive in wilderness areas near where you live, as this can give you some clues about which plants may do well in your forest garden.

 Other Perennial Bushes to Consider for your Urban Forest Garden

 In addition to fruiting and berry-producing bushes, urban forest gardeners should also consider enhancing the environment with a range of other perennial bushes. Shade tolerant shrubs native to this climate zone in Texas that could be beneficial plants to include in your forest garden include various hollies, Indian Hawthorne, forsythia, photinia, abelia, and pittosporum. Some acacias could also be beneficial plants to include in your garden scheme.

There is a benefit to introducing as wide a range of perennial plant species as possible. A more biodiverse ecosystem will be better able to adapt and resist the problems associated with climate change, and will likely be in better balance, reducing the risk of problems with pests and disease.

Planting for Soil Health

Certain perennial shrubs are particularly useful in a forest garden because of their ability to enhance fertility and to promote good soil health. The Elaeagnus bushes and acacia mentioned above, for example, along with a range of other perennial plants, are able to fix nitrogen from the air with the help of bacteria in their root rhizomes. This nitrogen, one of the key nutrients needed for plant growth, can then be taken up by other plants in the vicinity. Choosing some perennial shrubs which enhance soil health is a good way to ensure the long-term sustainability of your food forest.

Planting for Wildlife

Another way in which perennial shrubs can enhance the overall function and health of your food forest is by attracting a range of beneficial local wildlife. It is not only lovely to watch wildlife in your garden, but wildlife can also help you to grow food in your garden in a range of different ways. The success of any food growing scheme, including food forests, involves making sure that you keep a natural balance in your garden. Organic growers can keep pest numbers down by attracting predatory wildlife that will eat insects and other creatures that can damage your food-producing plants. Perennial shrubs can also attract pollinators, which are required for many fruits to form. Many flowering shrubs, including many native varieties, are very good at attracting these creatures.

When planting your perennial bushes, make sure that you leave enough space for each one to grow. Consider the fertility, water and sunlight needs of each when placing them, thinking ahead to when trees surrounding the shrubs, and the shrubs themselves, will be fully grown. Consider bushes which provide an edible yield, but also plants that enhance the fertility of surrounding soil, and which can attract beneficial wildlife. Choosing perennial bushes wisely and placing them with consideration will help to ensure that you get the highest yield possible from your edible forest garden.